10 Small Bathroom Design Ideas Foundations
The foundation of a building must be designed in such a way that it can easily transfer the weight of a wall and roof to the ground. In order to achieve this functional regulation, the deemed-to-satisfy rules include the following specifications.
Concrete mix to be poured into the excavation must produce strength of at least 10 MPa after 28 days. This is obtained by mixing one part cement, four parts sand and five parts aggregate (usually 20 mm stone). The thickness of the foundation must be at least 200 mm, and when a step is formed, the top layer must overlap the bottom layer by 200 mm (the thickness of the layer). The width of the foundation strip must be at least 600 mm for load-bearing (usually all outer) walls, and 400 mm for non-load-bearing (usually all inner) walls. In the case of non-load-bearing inner walls, it is also permissible to provide a thickening in the floor slab instead of a foundation strip. If this option is preferred, the thickening in the floor slab should be 200 mm
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Building of foundation walls
A foundation wall is the wall built on top of the concrete foundation strip to the height of the floor slab. All foundation walls must be 230 mm (two bricks) wide. If a foundation wall is going to be higher than 1.5 m, the house should be stepped to accommodate the slope of the land. If such a foundation wall is also used as a retaining wall, it is advisable to build it 345 mm (three bricks) wide.
Backfill of foundation walls and damp-proofing
Once the foundation walls have been built to floor level (also called the plinth), the inside of the house must be filled up (backfilled) to floor level. It is usually possible to use the same material that was excavated for the foundation strips, so always try to leave this material close by.
In order to prevent sagging beneath the floors, it is important to compact this backfilled material to closely resemble the natural density before excavation.
This is easily accomplished by replacing the filling in layers of 150 mm and compacting each layer properly with a mechanical or hand compactor. This process will be improved if the layers are sprayed with water to dampen them Always take care, however, not to soak the material completely as this will wash out all the fine material that is supposed to fill the smaller openings.
Continue backfilling until the final level is one brick below the final floor level, which will also be the thickness of the concrete floor slab. Try to make this top layer as level as possible.
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