The third era, in which we continue to live today, dates roughly to the early nineteenth century and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Mass production, which transferred the making of objects from human hands to machines, coupled with the increased complexity of the built world, forced the separation of design from craft. The result was the complete breakdown of what had long been a unified understanding of human needs and appropriate solutions for them. The designer, the craftsper-son, and the user were now entirely separate. This breakdown was recognized very early in the process of industrialization, with design reform movements attempting, for the most part in vain, to reunify design and craft, in ethos if not in practice.4 As a result of this split, the core issues of survival and wellbeing, once thought about and acted upon by the same person, have been scattered, threatening to obscure human components of design. The very structures of progress fall apart if design’s human center cannot hold.
The physical, philosophical, and psychological separation between designer, maker, and user is the dilemma we face today. Interior design ideas gallery Even though we cannot reverse the specialization that has taken place or prevent it happening further, we can restore the human as the focus of all design and, by doing so, provide a new umbrella of knowledge under which to proceed in the future. This will define the era of Holistic Design. The primal motives for design spring from within each of us and cannot be suppressed, even if they have been disregarded.
The way we interact with the world has never before undergone such rapid change. The revolution of the Internet and digital communication has upended many long-standing conditions of human relations, and the world we inhabit is no longer only a physical environment, but also a landscape that we occupy virtually. What was already false -the perception that the physical limits of our body define our personal space – has been clearly exposed as a fiction, since we now live in a global village that extends beyond the tangible boundaries of our neighborhoods and cities.5
Marshall McLuhan coined the phrase “global village in his remarkably prescient 1960s work on the transformative role of information technology and how it collapses the geographic and spatial barriers that separate city from city, region from region, and culture from culture. He made comparisons to the earlier role of urbanization:
If the work of the city is the remaking or translating of man into a more suitable form than his nomadic ancestors achieved, then might not our current translation of our entire lives into the spiritual form of information seem to make of the entire globe, and of the human family, a single consciousness?6
McLuhan suggests that the very nature of human interaction has been so radically altered that our second skin has become permeable and today has, perhaps, even dissolved completely as we move into the digital realm.
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