Calcium hardness is a measure of the water’s calcium content and, therefore, relates to the water’s corrosive tendencies. Too much calcium in the water causes it to precipitate out of the water and leads to deposits on sur- > faces and piping. Too little calcium leads to corrosion and etching.

The ideal range for calcium hardness for spas is 150 to 250 ppm, though some manufacturers may recommend a narrower range, depending on the type of spa shell you have.

Testing Calcium Hardness. You’ll need a liquid test kit to monitor the level.

Adjusting Calcium Hardness. Low calcium hardness tends to be a more common problem than high calcium hardness. To raise the level, carefully add predissolved calcium chloride. In the rare instance that the level is too high, replace some of the pool or spa water with fresh water.


Ideally, every woman, child, and man in the world would be tested as soon as possible to identify which 30-50 percent of the population carries the main genes for celiac, HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8. If you or your partner are gene carriers for these genes then the first plan of action would be to get properly tested for celiac disease. That can include an antibody test such as a serum celiac panel, a stool test from Enterolab, an Array 3 test from CyrexLabs, and/or an intestinal biopsy. Any antibody test absolutely needs to include a Total IgA and IgG due to the fact that many of the people with celiac disease are IgA deficient which means antibody testing is not useful or accurate because the person is not producing enough IgA necessary to mount an effective immune response due to damage in the intestines. Please keep in mind, one test does not rule celiac disease out; you can have symptoms or not and everyone, world-wide, is at risk of developing celiac disease or NCGS at any age (if you are a gene carrier). Celiac disease, by way of an innate and adaptive immune response to wheat, barley, rye, and contaminated oats, causes damage to the intestines of people that are gene carriers of HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8. Carrying these genes predisposes people to having celiac disease if they are exposed to even minute or trace amounts of these grains.

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